The Vympel R-27 missile (with the NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a medium-to-long-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force and air forces of the former Commonwealth of Independent States.
The R-27 is manufactured in infrared-homing (R-27T), semi-active-radar-homing (R-27R), and active-radar-homing (R-27AE) versions, in both Russia and Ukraine. The R-27 missile is carried by the Mikoyan MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 fighters, and some of the later-model MiG-23MLD fighters have also been adapted to carry it. The R-27 missile is also license-produced in the PRC, though the production license was bought from Ukraine instead of Russia. The Chinese versions have a different active radar seeker taken from the Vympel R-77 missile, which was sold to the PRC by Russia.
- R-27R AA-10 Alamo-A, semi-active radar homing. Launch range from Mach 1.4, 11 km altitude: 60 km (head-on) / 21 km (tail-on). Minimum launch range under same conditions 2 km (head-on) / 0.5 to 0.6 km (tail-on).Up to 80 km under optimal conditions
- R-27T AA-10 Alamo-B, infrared homing, passive homing using the Avtomatika 9B-1032 (PRGS-27) IR seeker head. Weight 248 kg. Range is said to be 70 km under optimal conditions. The R-27T missile does not possess a data-link, which makes it useful only at much shorter ranges at head-on engagements, however. At tail-on engagements the longer physical reach can be fully utilized.
- R-27ER AA-10 Alamo-C, the semi-active-radar homing extended-range version, which is 70 cm longer and slightly wider. Range up to 130 km under optimal conditions. Entered service 1990.
- R-27ET AA-10 Alamo-D, the infrared-homing extended-range version, which is 70 cm longer and slightly wider, range of 120 km under optimal conditions using the Avtomatika 9B-1032 (PRGS-27) seeker head. Weight 348 kg. Entered service in 1990. The R-27ET missile does not possess a data-link, which makes it useful only at much shorter ranges at head-on engagements, however. At tail-on engagements the longer physical reach can be fully utilized.
- R-27P AA-10 Alamo-E, passive radar homing with a range of up to 72 km.
- R-27EP AA-10 Alamo-F, a longer range passive anti-radiation missile with a range of up to 70nm (130 km)